Scientific Papers

“The development of EM2 depends on a wide array of scientific innovations, from safety enhancements to heat-resistant fuel cladding to increased reactor efficiency. In support of this work, GA's researching physicists and engineers have published a number of key papers in scientific journals.”

Effects of loading modes on densification efficiency of spark plasma sintering: sample study of zirconium carbide consolidation
Xialu Wei, Andrey L. Maximenko, Christina Back, Oleg Izhvanov, and Eugene A. Olevsky, Philosophical Magazine Letters. xx (2017) 1-8.

Endplug Pushout Test Method for Measuring Strength of Ceramic Tube-Endplug Joints
George M. Jacobsen, Oscar Gutierrez, Hesham E. Khalifa, Christian P. Deck, C. A. Back, Submitted to J. Am. Cer. SoC., 2016.

ASTM WK51822: Nominal Joint Strength of End-Plug Joints in Advanced Ceramic Tubes at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures
Jacobsen, G.M., Gonczy S., ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016 (In Ballot).

Radiation Stable Hybrid Chemical Vapor Infiltration/Preceramic Polymer Joining of Silicon Carbide Components
Hesham E. Khalifa, Takaaki Koyanagi, George M. Jacobsen, Christian P. Deck and Christina A. Back, J. Nucl. Mater. 487 (2017) 91-95.

Zirconium Carbide Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering and Hot Pressing: Densification Kinetics, Grain Growth and Thermal Properties
Xialu Wei, Christina Back, Oleg Izhvanov, Christopher D. Haines, Eugene Olevsky, Materials 2016, 9(7), 277, doi:10.3390/ma9070577.

Fabrication and Testing of Complex Silicon Carbide Composite Structures
H.E. Khalifa, C.P. Shih, G.M. Jacobsen, C.P. Deck, Trans. Amer. Nucl. Soc., vol. XXX, Jun. 13-16, New Orleans, La., pp. XXX, 2016.

High Temperature Testing of Geometrically Relevant, Nuclear Grade, Silicon Carbide Joints
Jacobsen, G.M., Khalifa, H.E., Kearns, Y., Gutierrez, O., Deck C.P., Trans of the Amer. Nucl. Soc., vol. 113, pp. 542-546, 2015.

Spark Plasma Sintering of Agglomerated Vanadium Carbide Powder
Wei Li, E.A. Olevsky, O.L. Khasanov, C.A. Back, O. Izhvanov, J. Opperman, H.E. Khalifa
Ceramics International, vol. 41, pp. 3748-3759, 2015.

Spark Plasma Sintering of Commercial Zirconium Carbide powders
Xialu Wei, Christina Back, Oleg Izhvanov, Oleg Khasanov, Christopher Haines, Eugene Olevsky, Materials, vol. 8(9), pp. 6043-6061, 2015; doi:10.3390/ma8095289.

Experimental study of thermo-mechanical behavior of SiC composite tubing under high temperature gradient using solid surrogate
Luis Alva, Kirill Shapovalov, George M. Jacobsen, Christina A. Back, Xinyu Huang, J. Nucl. Mater., vol. 466, pp. 698-711, 2015, doi:10.1016/J.Jnucmat.2015.07.017.

Fabrication and characterization of joined silicon carbide cylindrical components for nuclear applications
H. E. Khalifa, C.P. Deck, O. Guierrez, G.M. Jacobsen, C.A. Back, Journal of Nuclear Materials, vol. 457, pp. 227-240, 2015.

Stress analysis and probabilistic assessment of multi-layer SiC-based accident tolerant nuclear fuel cladding
J. Stone, R. Schleicher, C. P. Deck, G. M. Jacobsen, H. E. Khalifa, C. A. Back, J. Nucl. Mater., vol. 466, pp. 682-697, 2015, doi:10.1016/J.Jnucmat.2015.08.001.

Characterization of SiC–SiC composites for accident tolerant fuel cladding
C. P. Deck, G. M. Jacobsen, J. Sheeder, O. Gutierrez, J. Zhang, J. Stone, H. E. Khalifa, C. A. Back, J. Nucl. Mater., vol. 466, pp. 667-681, 2015, doi:10.1016/J.Jnucmat.2015.08.020.

Comparison of Shear Strength of Ceramic Joints Determined by Various Test Methods with Small Specimens
Chunghao Shih, Yutai Katoh, Jim O. Kiggans, Takaaki Koyanagi, Hesham E. Khalifa, Christina A. Back Tatsuya Hinoki, and Monica Ferraris, Ceramic Materials for Energy Applications IV, H.-T. Lin, Y. Katoh and J. Matyáš, eds., 38th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, Jan. 27-31, 2014, Daytona Beach, Fla., John Wiley & Sons. doi: 10.1002/9781119040323.ch13

Localized mechanical property assessment of SiC/SiC composite materials
D. Frazer, M. D. Abad, D. Krumwiede, C. A. Back, H. E. Khalifa, C. P. Deck, P. Hosemann, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 70, pp. 93-101, 2015, doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2014.11.008.

Nano/micro scale Characterization of SiC/SiC Composite Materials
D. Frazer, P. Hosemann, C. A. Back, C. Deck, H. Khalifa, Microscopy and Microanalysis, vol. 18 (suppl. 2) , pp. 1420-1421, doi:10.1017/S1431927612008951.

Progress on the Design and Development of EM2
R. Schleicher, C. A. Back and H. Choi, Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference, 24-28 Aug. 2014.

SiC-SiC Cladding for Light Water Reactors
C. A. Back and E. Lahoda, 2014 Water Reactor Fuel Performance Meeting/Top Fuel/LWR Fuel Performance Meeting, Sendai, Japan, Sept. 14-17, 2014.

Design and Development of EM2
Robert W. Schleicher and Timothy Bertch, ASME 2014 Small Modular Reactors Symposium
Washington, D.C., April 15-17, 2014.

High Pressure Burst Testing of SiCf-SiCm Composite Nuclear Fuel Cladding
Luis H. Alva, Xinyu Huang, George M. Jacobsen and Christina A. Back, in Jin, H., Sciammarella, C., Yoshida, S., Lamberti, L., eds., Advancement of Optical Methods in Experimental Mechanics, vol. 3, Springer, 2014.

Multi-Scale Characterization of SIC/SiC Composite Materials
D. Frazer, M. D. Abad, C. Back, C. Deck, P. Hosemann, in T. Sano, T.S. Srivatsan and M. W. Paretti, eds., Advanced Composites for Aerospace, Marine, and Land Applications, Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, N.J., 2014.

Investigation of the C-ring Test for Measuring Hoop Tensile Strength of Nuclear Grade Ceramic Composites
G. M. Jacobsen, J. D. Stone, H. E. Khalifa, C. P. Deck and C. A. Back, J. Nucl. Mater., vol. 452, pp.125-132, 2014.

Permeability Measurements for SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites Relevant to LWR
O. Gutierrez, H. E. Khalifa, C. P. Deck, C. A. Back and R. Schleicher, Trans. of the Amer. Nucl. Soc., vol. 110, pp. 803-806, 2014.

Out-of-pile Characterization and Testing of Joined Cylindrical Components for SiC-based Nuclear Fuel Cladding
H.E. Khalifa, G.M. Jacobsen, O. Gutierrez, C.A. Back, Trans. Amer. Nucl. Soc., vol. 109, pp. 419-422, 2013.

Tensile Strength of Tubular SiC-SiC Composites for use in Nuclear Cladding
G.M. Jacobsen, H.E. Khalifa, C.A. Back, Trans Amer. Nucl. Soc., vol. 109, pp. 573-575, 2013.

High Durability Joint between Ceramic Articles, and Methods
H. E. Khalifa, C. P. Deck and C. A. Back, US Patent 20130266363 A1, 2013.

A Compact Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor with an Ultra-long Fuel Cycle
Hangbok Choi, R. W. Schleicher, and P. Gupta, Sci. and Tech. of Nucl. installations, vol. 2013.

Modeling Forced Flow Chemical Vapor Infiltration Fabrication of SiC-SiC Composites for Advanced Nuclear Reactors
Christian P. Deck, H. E. Khalifa, B. Sammuli and C. A. Back, Sci. and Tech. of Nucl. Installations, vol. 2013.

Nano/micro Scale Characterization of SiC/SiC Composite Materials
D. Frazer, P. Hosemann, C. A. Back, C. Deck, H. Khalifa, Microscopy and Microanalysis, vol. 18, no. S2, pp. 1420-1421.

Fabrication of SiC-SiC Composites for Fuel Cladding in Advanced Reactor Designs
C. P. Deck, H. E. Khalifa, B. Sammuli, T. Hilsabeck, C. A. Back, Prog. Nucl. Energ., vol. 57, pp. 38-45, 2012.

Effects of Structure and Processing on the Thermal Conductivity of SiC-SiC Composites
Deck, C. P., H. E. Khalifa, and C. A.. Back, 2012., Trans. Amer. Nucl. Soc., vol. 106, pp. 1123-1125, 2012.

Energy Multiplier Module (EM2) - Capping the Waste Problem and Using the Energy in U-238
J. Parmentola and J. Rawls, Fusion Sci. and Tech., vol. 61, no. 1T, pp. 9-14, 2012.

Configuring EM2 to Meet the Challenges of Economics, Waste Disposition, and Non-Proliferation Confronting Nuclear Energy in the U. S.
R. Schleicher and C. Back, Fusion Sci. and Tech., vol. 61, no. 1T, pp. 144-149, 2012.

Silicon Carbide Composite Fabrication and Mechanical and Thermal Performance for Nuclear Reactor Applications
H. E. Khalifa, C. P. Deck, K. C. Chen, and C. A. Back, Fusion Sci. and Tech., vol. 61, no. 1T, pp. 375-380, 2012.