Companies to cooperate on HTS technologies for fusion energy and other applications
San Diego, USA & Oxford, UK, May 30th – US headquartered General Atomics (GA) and UK headquartered Tokamak Energy Ltd have signed a memorandum of understanding to collaborate in the area of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) technology for fusion energy and other industry applications. The collaboration would leverage GA’s world-leading capabilities for manufacturing large-scale magnet systems and Tokamak Energy’s pioneering expertise in HTS magnet technologies.
Creating clean, sustainable fusion energy requires strong magnetic fields to confine and control hydrogen fuel, which becomes a plasma several times hotter than the sun. Fusion power stations will provide safe and secure clean energy to towns and cities, and heat to industrial factories. One kilogram of fusion fuel releases the same amount of energy as burning around 10 million kilograms of coal, with no harmful emissions.
“GA is excited to collaborate with Tokamak Energy on HTS magnets. Tokamak Energy is a leader in HTS magnet modelling, design and prototyping and GA has expertise in developing and fabricating large-scale superconducting magnets for fusion applications.” said Anantha Krishnan, Senior Vice President at General Atomics.
Warrick Matthews, Managing Director at Tokamak Energy, said: “GA has significant experience, knowledge and facilities to produce large superconducting magnets at scale. Tokamak Energy has been developing HTS technologies for fusion for over a decade. The integration of these complementary capabilities promises to accelerate the development and production of HTS technologies in additional fields, such as aviation, naval, space and medical applications.”
HTS Magnet Applications to Fusion Energy
Magnetic fusion is the most thoroughly researched path to fusion energy. The approach utilizes a device known as a tokamak, which use several sets of powerful electromagnets to shape and confine superheated hydrogen gas – known as plasma. To achieve fusion conditions relevant for energy production, tokamaks must heat the gas to temperatures exceeding 100 million degrees Celsius—more than ten times the temperature at the center of the sun. This is the threshold required for fusion to be a commercially viable energy source.
Strong magnetic fields are generated by passing large electrical currents around arrays of electromagnet coils that circle the plasma. The magnets are wound from ground-breaking HTS tapes, multi-layered conductors with a crucial internal coating of ‘rare earth barium copper oxide’ (REBCO) superconducting material. Developing more powerful HTS magnets will allow fusion power plants to use thinner magnetic coils while generating plasmas at greater densities. This would enable the facilities to operate with greater efficiency and smaller footprints, thereby improving their cost effectiveness.
Fusing hydrogen atoms in a tokamak produces approximately ten million times more energy than comparable chemical reactions, such as the burning of coal or natural gas, without producing any carbon emissions or long-lasting waste. When deployed at scale, fusion will serve as a nearly limitless source of clean, safe, and always-available energy.
Tokamak Energy has been a pioneer in recognizing the opportunity to apply and develop HTS magnet technology for fusion energy. It is also the only private fusion company to have more than 10 years’ experience of designing, building, and operating privately-owned tokamaks.
Tokamak Energy is a world-leader in the development of HTS magnets for fusion and other applications, with a proven track record:
GA established its first fusion research and development programs in the 1950s and has over five decades of experience operating tokamaks. Following GA’s successful Doublet I and II tokamak experiments, the United States Atomic Energy Commission selected GA to construct the Doublet III (DIII) tokamak, which achieved its first plasma in early 1978. The DIII system was later modified to utilize a D-shaped cross section and established as the DIII-D National Fusion Facility. GA has operated DIII-D on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy since the program’s inception. The facility has played a significant role in advancing fusion science and technologies and is strongly positioned to provide key capabilities in support of the U.S. Decadal Vision to commercialize fusion energy.
GA began working on superconducting magnet technologies in the 1980s. In 2015, GA established its state-of-the-art Magnet Technologies Center (MTC) to fabricate the Central Solenoid modules for the international ITER experiment. When assembled, the 5-story, 1,000-ton Central Solenoid will drive 15 million amperes of electrical current in ITER's fusion plasma. GA is developing a range of other technologies for ITER, including high-power microwave transmission line components, real-time plasma control software, and custom-made specialty diagnostic systems.
About Tokamak Energy: Tokamak Energy is a leading British commercial fusion energy company. It is pursuing the global deployment of commercial fusion through the combined development of spherical tokamaks with high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets.
The company, founded in 2009 as a spin-off from UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), employs a growing team of over 250 people with talent from the UK and experts from around the world.
It combines world leading scientific, engineering, industrial and commercial capabilities. The company has 70 families of patent applications and has raised $250 million, comprising $200m from private investors and $50m from the UK and US governments.
About General Atomics: Since the dawn of the atomic age, General Atomics innovations have advanced the state of the art across the full spectrum of science and technology – from nuclear energy and defense to medicine and high-performance computing. Behind a talented global team of scientists, engineers, and professionals, GA’s unique experience and capabilities continue to deliver safe, sustainable, economical, and innovative solutions to meet growing global demands.
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